México festejará 15 de septiembre... ¿Con producto de China?
La palabra Tamal proviene de Nahuatl Tamalli que significa envuelto. Cada uno con un costo alrededor de 8 pesos. Finalmente, la Tlayuda se coloca sobre el anafre a que se tueste y quede crujiente. Dato curioso, solo las mujeres de los valles Centrales elaboran estas tortillas gigantes. En las regiones de Oaxaca, hay puestos con grandes ollas de barro donde se vende el tejate. Cuando las primeras lluvias tienen lugar en Oaxaca, las hormigas voladoras llamadas chicatanas dejan sus hormigueros y gente de todas las edades las recogen para elaborar la ya famosa salsa de chicatanas.
Son un poco costosas, como a pesos por kilo aproximadamente, se puede decir. Sus comidas son esenciales, exquisitas y entre vistas las mejores, en estas regiones.
Como idiomas de gran dominancia. Buscar la riqueza no en las posesiones sino en las necesidades. El idioma que hablan es el nahua, perteneciente al grupo Nahua — Cuitlateco, tronco Yutonahua, familia Nahua. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Ni hual choca in, ni hual icnotlamati, zan, etc. La mujer que mantiene unida a la familia a costa de su propio esfuerzo.
Amelia La mujer rebelde. La fuente de las mujeres. Mujer marginada que se dedica a la pintura. La mujer ha tenido un papel preponderante y significativo en todo esto.
El cine, sin embargo, como otros medios, ha evolucionado su lenguaje al mismo tiempo y ritmo que lo ha hecho la sociedad. Estereotipos y cultura social sobre la mujer en el cine. Sin embargo, este camino social y cultural es largo y costoso, y el cine, como todo producto social, lo ha ido reproduciendo en la medida en que os cambios se iban generando.
Los valores como el poder, el sexo, la violencia o el dinero aparecen legitimados en la pantalla. Mujeres en el cine. La mujer objeto de deseo: Otras mujeres objeto de deseo. La mujer profesional que arriesga su vida: El riesgo para la mujer comprometida con una causa. Vuelta al infierno Going Back , , de Sidney J. Blancanieves y los siete enanitos. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Su madrastra, la Reina, quiere matarla al saber que la supera en belleza.
Cuando la Reina se da cuenta de que se esconde decide disfrazarse de bruja e ir a matar a Blancanieves con una manzana envenenada. Disney produjo varias, La Cenicienta , , o La Sirenita , en El cartero siempre llama dos veces La mujer manipuladora. Mujeres manipuladoras, hombres dominados.
Lolita La mujer a la que el hombre intenta modelar: El cine ha tratado este tema en infinidad de ocasiones. La bella y la Bestia , varias veces llevada al cine, o las que reproducen el mito del Doctor Frankestein. Fox, Michael Madsen, Michael Parks. Sin embargo consigue sobrevivir, aunque queda en coma. La venganza de las mujeres en el cine. Las mujeres se han vengado muchas veces en el cine, a veces por los malos tratos recibidos por ellas, otras veces para resarcirse de los efectuados a sus posesiones, familia o hijos.
Floss, una mujer violenta y vengativa que es la secretaria del villano Octopus. La mujer que supera las mayores dificultades: Clint Eastwood, Albert S. Ruddy, Tom Rosenberg y Paul Haggis. Sin rodeos, le describe a Maggie la amarga realidad: Se narran los esfuerzos hechos por ella para encontrarle y su asesinato. Las flores de Harrison. La verdadera Erin Brokovich y su abogado. La mujer que lucha por sus hijos y por su trabajo: Mujeres que luchan por sus hijos.
Cuando conoce a Jorge, un refugiado latinoamericano, vislumbra la posibilidad de alcanzar la felicidad. Sin embargo la burocracia estatal intenta quedarse con sus hijos. Maggie se niega a darse por vencida. El Aceite de la vida La mujer migrante: Como la soledad que comparte Alfonso, Damian y Carmelo, hombres de Santa Eulalia, pueblo sin mujeres casaderas ni futuro. Una fiesta de solteros fuerza el encuentro de unas con otros y el inicio de esta historia agridulce de convivencias a veces imposibles.
La mujer discapacitada que busca vivir con normalidad: Gaby, una historia verdadera. Gaby, a True Story. Otras mujeres discapacitadas que buscan la normalidad. La mujer que se compromete socialmente: En un mundo libre. It's a Free World El jardinero fiel Mujeres comprometidas con los Derechos humanos. Mujeres que rompen los esquemas de su sociedad: Nominadas Susan Sarandon y Geena Davis.
Las dos deciden que lo que necesitan es un fin de semana alejadas de la rutina, y emprenden un viaje en el Thunderbird descapotable de , propiedad de Louise. Mujeres que enfrentan su entorno social: Mujeres que se liberan a pesar del entorno social en el que viven. Viuda ya, encuentra su camino al enamorarse de un activista de Ghandi, de casta superior. Gorilas en la niebla. Gorillas in the mist: The Story of Dian Fos. La inspiradora y real historia de Dian Fossey, la pionera primatologista, que en lo profundo de la frondosa selva de Ruanda, investiga, cuida, quiere convive y defiende a una familia de gorilas.
Otras profesionales que corren riesgos. Ambos se ven involucrados en un oscuro mundo de asesinatos e intrigas en el que luchan por salvar de sus asesinos a una chica de la ciudad. La mujer reprimida por una sociedad asfixiante: Cinta , Lola Gaos. Mujeres que se adaptan a la sociedad en la que viven. Mujer y hombre que se aportan mutuamente. Michael Caine, Julie Walters. Susan , una peluquera aburrida con su vida y agobiada por las presiones de su marido para que tengan hijos, se apunta a clases de literatura en la universidad para sentirse mejor consigo misma.
El profesor tiene a su vez problemas con la bebida y de identidad personal y profesional. Apoyo mutuo en igualdad. No sin mi hija. Not Without My Daughter. Betty Mahmoody, William Hoffer. Cuando la cultura de la sociedad patriarcal anula a la mujer.
Los peligros de Paulina. Los peligros de Paulina, The Perils of Pauline Pakula , b asada en una novela de John Grisham , u na joven que elaborado un informe sobre los asesinatos de unos jueces es amenazada.
Aterrorizada, decide confiar en un periodista. La mujer seducida y abandonada: Juan y su grupo de amigos, que combaten el aburrimiento imaginando pesadas bromas, hacen creer a Isabel que Juan, enamorado, se va a casar con ella.
Muchas mujeres han sido seducidas en el cine. Tras muchas tragedias y vicisitudes, Agnese acepta casarse con Peppino, mientras que Matilde se encierra en un convento. Mujer violada y vengada. El manantial de la doncella. Pero la adversidad se ceba en ellas Un grupo de soldados las violan en una iglesia. Se inspira en un original de Alberto Moravia. El milagro de Ana Sullivan. Cine y discapacidad El milagro de Ana Sullivan, The miracle worker.
Helen Keller, William Gibson. Legislation to change the laws covering same-sex marriage is currently proposed in almost every state. In addition, courts in all states must approve marriage licenses for same-sex couples when petitioned to do so; individual same-sex marriages have occurred in every state. From to , they were also performed in the state of Colima, but were replaced by same-sex marriage legislation.
Since August , same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception, and fundamental spousal rights such as alimony payments, inheritance rights, and the coverage of spouses by the federal social security system also apply to same-sex couples across the country. In June , the Mexican Supreme Court ruled that same-sex marriage bans are unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and did not invalidate any state laws, but standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico to approve all applications for same-sex marriages.
It was the first such law in Mexico, soon followed by the northern state of Coahuila in January On 21 December , Mexico City became the first Latin American jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage.
The law became effective on 4 March On 5 August , the Supreme Court voted to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law. On 28 November , the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after discovering that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage,  but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April A Oaxaca case was pivotal in opening the door to legal same-sex marriage in every state in Mexico, through the recurso de amparo process.
Using international decisions, whose verdicts serve as legal precedent in Mexican courts, like the protections in the American Convention on Human Rights Atala Riffo and Daughters v. Chile case,  the U. Virginia and Brown v. Board of Education and Mexico's own anti-discrimination ordinances,  the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation ruled on 5 December that: A landmark decision, issued on 29 January , was the first injunction for marriage recognition in Puebla.
The injunction required IMSS to extend benefits equal to married heterosexual couples' benefits to gays and lesbians who are married or have entered into civil unions throughout Mexico. A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June resulted in a ruling that found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and did not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions.
The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico to approve all applications for same-sex marriages,   and made the approval mandatory. On 20 December , the National Human Rights Commission submitted a general recommendation to all state executive and legislative bodies, requesting them to allow same-sex marriages in their jurisdictions.
Any amendment to the Constitution requires support of at least a two-thirds majority in Congress and ratification from a simple majority of the 31 states. The Court found that the wording of articles 6, 39, 40, and , and sections I and II of the ISSSTE Act violated the rights of same-sex couples to affiliate as beneficiaries of the Institute, and thus, those articles violate the principle of equality and non-discrimination established in Articles 1 and of the Federal Constitution.
The ruling states that all same-sex couples in Mexico have a nationwide right to establish and maintain a family life, whether through pro-creation, adoption or other means derived from scientific advances. The general elections resulted in the National Regeneration Movement MORENA , a pro-same-sex marriage left-wing party, winning the majority of legislative seats in 12 states where same-sex marriage has not yet been legalized.
When one of Mexico's second-level federal appeals court rules that an existing law is unconstitutional in five separate and consecutive amparos , using identical language in each ruling, this creates jurisprudence against that law. This process is called recurso de amparo. When a same-sex couple is denied the right to marry, they can file an amparo with a federal appeals court to request that they be allowed to legally marry.
Since , the courts have been obliged to rule in favor of same-sex couples seeking marriage certificates. An amparo may be invoked when a person feels their rights have been violated. The process is not expensive. An amparo that has been appealed by the state in question and reaches the federal Supreme Court is also called a "resolution".
Resolutions have more legal power, as the Supreme Court, after having ruled five times on five different resolutions, can force the state congress to eliminate the law, in this case, a ban on same-sex marriage. In November , Sinaloa became the first state to reach five identical resolutions in a row, followed by Chihuahua in February and Tamaulipas in September However, state authorities in these states have intentionally delayed and blocked attempts to legalize same-sex marriage in their civil codes.
The English word " injunction " can be used to refer to both amparos and resolutions. Actions of unconstitutionality are lawsuits seeking to determine if a certain law is unconstitutional.
In Mexico, they can only be filed within 30 days after the law has come into force. As many state marriage laws in Mexico are decades-old, LGBT groups cannot file an action of unconstitutionality against these laws. However, if these laws are modified by the state legislatures, then this qualifies for an action of unconstitutionality. For instance, in , the Congress of Puebla modified its marriage laws, but left intact provisions outlawing same-sex marriages.
LGBT groups quickly filed an action of unconstitutionality. Actions of unconstitutionality are reviewed by the full bench of the Mexican Supreme Court.
The Court decides whether these laws are constitutional, and if they are not, they are struck down. As of April , three states Chiapas, Jalisco and Puebla have had their same-sex marriage bans struck down by the Supreme Court in such a way. The ruling was fully binding on Costa Rica and set binding precedent in other Latin American and Caribbean countries including Mexico. In the wake of this ruling, LGBT advocacy groups in Mexico have urged the Government to abide by the ruling, and fully legalize same-sex marriage.
This table shows only states that regularly license same-sex marriages or have legalized them. It does not include states where same-sex couples have been able to marry in individual cases. Being the seat of the Powers of the Union , Mexico City did not belong to any particular state but to all. After years of demanding greater political autonomy , residents were given the right to directly elect the Head of Government of the Federal District and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly ALDF by popular vote in In early September , modifications to the civil union agreement were drafted to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and dissolution support.
In essence, the law had provided that upon termination, domestic partners were only allowed support for a period equal to half the length of the partnership. The Supreme Court ruled that the provision was discriminatory as it accorded differential treatment in cases of partnership for cohabitation, marriage or concubinage.
The bill changed the definition of marriage in the city's Civil Code from "a free union between a man and a woman" to "a free union between two people. In early January , the Constitutional Assembly of Mexico City voted, in its plenary session, to fully enshrine same-sex marriage in Mexico City's first Constitution. In September , Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejada, legislative member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution PRD , announced that a civil union bill and possibly a same-sex marriage bill were to be introduced by the Governor of the state for consideration.
On 15 June , a PAN congresswoman indicated that her party is preparing a civil union proposal and would present it to Congress when ready.
In April , the president of the State Commission of Human Rights announced that they would introduce a new same-sex marriage proposal. In April , PAN, which holds a majority in the Aguascalientes Congress, announced that it would continue to oppose same-sex marriage and would not allow the PRD bill introduced in October to be approved.
On 23 August , shortly after the ruling of the Mexican Supreme Court requiring all states to recognise same-sex marriages validly performed in another state, state legislators introduced an amendment to article 7 of the Constitution of the State of Baja California, adding the definition of marriage as being the union of a man and a woman.
On 29 September , the Congress of Baja California voted 18—1 in favor of the amendment, and after approval by municipalities, it was published on 27 May A bill was introduced to the Baja California Congress on 12 February to fully legalise same-sex marriage in the state by changing article 7 of the state Constitution. On 3 November , the State Government announced that it would cease to enforce its same-sex marriage ban and that the Civil Registry will begin accepting applications for marriage licenses by same-sex couples.
On 9 April , the organization La Comunidad Sudcaliforniana en Diversidad Sexual proposed reforms to the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage and adoption. She also indicated that PAN is in favor of modifying the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage to be legal. In September , several deputies promised to have the same-sex marrriage initiative approved by Congress.
The law was published in the official state gazette on 16 May and came into effect on 20 May On 6 April , an action of unconstitutionality was filed before the Mexican Supreme Court. On 11 June , the state Governor announced the state would no longer prevent same-sex marriage, making Chihuahua the fourth jurisdiction to have legal same-sex marriage without having to resort to individual injunction.
Additionally, according to the state DIF , same-sex couples are allowed to adopt jointly in Chihuahua. In February , the Mexican Supreme Court ruled for the fifth time that Chihuahua's Civil Code is unconstitutional because it hadn't yet been modified to be consistent with the fact that same-sex marriage is legal.
The legalization of same-sex civil unions in Coahuila had started to be discussed as early as November , simultaneously with the discussion ongoing in Mexico City. On 5 March , Congressman Samuel Acevedo Flores, from the Social Democratic Party, introduced a bill to the Congress of Coahuila to legalize same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples. A bill to legalize same-sex marriage in the state was unanimously approved by the Congress of Colima on 25 May The new law allows couples who previously contracted civil unions before the legislation was repealed to have them recognized by the state or converted to a marriage.
As no action had been taken on the bill, in February , he requested that it be expedited. On 10 February , the Justice Commission of the Congress of Durango approved a draft bill to legalize same-sex marriage in the state. In response to the first amparo approval, on 21 February , the PRD introduced a bill to Congress to amend the Civil Code of the State so that marriages between people of the same sex are allowed. On 29 April , the Guanajuato City Council unanimously passed a resolution allowing a lesbian couple to marry in the municipality.
After the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation's ruling went into effect on 22 June, officials in Guerrero began announcing plans for a collective group wedding. Legislators lamented they would have preferred to have the bill passed before marriages took place, but given the time line presented, it was unlikely. The department head also stated that any marriage conducted in Guerrero will be legally valid. In April , an LGBT rights group in the state began the process of filing lawsuits to have existing marriages in the region recognised if the municipality refuses to do so.
It did not legalize adoption and mandated that civil unions be performed with a civil law notary. The first same-sex marriage in the state occurred via amparo in December In January , the full bench of the Mexican Supreme Court unanimously declared the Civil Code unconstitutional for limiting marriage to heterosexual couples. On 12 May , the Congress of Jalisco complied with the Mexican Supreme Court ruling and instructed all the state's municipalities to issue same-sex marriage licenses.
In , a citizen's initiative to legalize same-sex marriage was presented to Congress. On 27 August , the Justice and Human Rights Committee announced it would enact a civil union law for same-sex couples.
On 9 February , a new Legislature's Justice and Human Rights Committee approved a Family Code that would allow same-sex marriage and joint adoption. The law allows couples to adopt children jointly. On 18 May , the Congress of Morelos voted 20 to 6 to approve a constitutional change to legalize same-sex marriage.
A constitutional change requires the ratification of at least 17 of the 33 municipalities in the state. Former Governor Rodrigo Medina de la Cruz and the local Congress both filed appeals challenging the ruling of a federal judge who ruled it is discriminatory to limit concubinage to opposite-sex couples.
On 17 June , the Nueva Alianza Party announced their intention to introduce a same-sex marriage bill. An Independent congressman announced his intention to submit his own civil union proposal with the support of the ruling PAN. His statement came after LGBT groups organized a protest in favor of same-sex marriage in front of the Congress building.