Of the 73 neighbourhoods in the city, 45 had a population density above 20, inhabitants per square kilometre with a combined population of 1,, inhabitants living on The 30 most densely populated neighbourhoods accounted for In addition to that, The most important region of origin of migrants is Europe, with many coming from Italy 26, or France 13, Since the s, and similar to other migrants, many Latin Americans have settled in northern parts of the city.
There exists a relatively large Pakistani community in Barcelona with up to twenty thousand nationals. The community consists of significantly more men than women. Many of the Pakistanis are living in Ciutat Vella. First Pakistani migrants came in the s, with increasing numbers in the s. Other significant migrant groups come from Asia as from China and the Philippines. The province has the largest Muslim community in Spain, , people in Barcelona province are of Muslim religion. The city also has the largest Jewish community in Spain, with an estimated 3, Jews living in the city.
Barcelona was the 24th most "livable city" in the world in according to lifestyle magazine Monocle. Barcelona has a long-standing mercantile tradition. Less well known is that the city industrialised early, taking off in , when Catalonia's already sophisticated textile industry began to use steam power.
It became the first and most important industrial city in the Mediterranean basin. Since then, manufacturing has played a large role in its history.
Borsa de Barcelona Barcelona Stock Exchange is the main stock exchange in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Drawing upon its tradition of creative art and craftsmanship, Barcelona is known for its award-winning industrial design. It also has several congress halls, notably Fira de Barcelona — the second largest trade fair and exhibition centre in Europe, that host a quickly growing number of national and international events each year at present above However, the Eurozone crisis and deep cuts in business travel affected the Council's positioning of the city as a convention centre.
Barcelona was the 20th-most-visited city in the world by international visitors and the fifth most visited city in Europe after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome, with 5. Barcelona as internationally renowned a tourist destination, with numerous recreational areas, one of the best beaches in the world,   mild and warm climate, historical monuments, including eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites , hotels as of March  including 35 five star hotels,  and developed tourist infrastructure.
Due to its large influx of tourists each year, Barcelona, like many other tourism capitals, has to deal with pickpockets, with wallets and passports being commonly stolen items. For this reason, most travel guides recommend that visitors take precautions in order to ensure their possessions' safety, especially inside the metro premises. While tourism produces economic benefits, the city is "overrun" In early , over , protesters warned that tourism is destabilizing the city.
Slogans included "Tourists go home", "Barcelona is not for sale" and "We will not be driven out". By then, number of visitors had increased from 1. The mayor has suggested an additional tourist tax and setting a limit on the number of visitors.
Barcelona has long been an important European automobile manufacturing centre. Today, the headquarters and a large factory of SEAT the largest Spanish automobile manufacturer are in one of its suburbs.
There is also a Nissan factory in the logistics and industrial area of the city. As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries are textiles , chemical, pharmaceutical , motor, electronic, printing, logistics , publishing , in telecommunications industry and culture the notable Mobile World Congress , and information technology services. The traditional importance of textiles is reflected in Barcelona's drive to become a major fashion centre.
There have been many attempts to launch Barcelona as a fashion capital , notably Gaudi Home. Since , The Brandery , an urban fashion show, has been held in Barcelona twice a year until As the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia , Barcelona is the seat of the Catalan government, known as the Generalitat de Catalunya ; of particular note are the executive branch , the parliament , and the High Court of Justice of Catalonia.
Barcelona is governed by a city council formed by 41 city councillors, elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage. As one of the two biggest cities in Spain, Barcelona is subject to a special law articulated through the Carta Municipal Municipal Law. A first version of this law was passed in and amended later, but the current version was approved in March It also gives a special economic regime to the city's treasury and it gives the council a veto in matters that will be decided by the central government, but that will need a favourable report from the council.
They are composed by a number of councillors proportional to the number of councillors each political party has in the plenary. Some of these competencies are not exclusive, but shared with the Generalitat de Catalunya or the central Spanish government. In some fields with shared responsibility such as public health, education or social services , there is a shared Agency or Consortium between the city and the Generalitat to plan and manage services.
It is made up of departments which are legally part of the city council and by separate legal entities of two types: After 32 years, on 22 May , CiU gained a plurality of seats at the municipal election, gaining 15 seats to the PSC's The districts are based mostly on historical divisions, and several are former towns annexed by the city of Barcelona in the 18th and 19th centuries that still maintain their own distinct character.
Each district has its own council led by a city councillor. The composition of each district council depends on the number of votes each political party had in that district, so a district can be led by a councillor from a different party than the executive council. Barcelona has a well-developed higher education system of public universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Barcelona established in , a world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city.
Barcelona is also home to the Polytechnic University of Catalonia , and the newer Pompeu Fabra University , and, in the private sector the EADA Business School founded in , became the first Barcelona institution to run manager training programmes for the business community. The Autonomous University of Barcelona , another public university, is located in Bellaterra , a town in the Metropolitan Area. The city has a network of public schools, from nurseries to high schools, under the responsibility of a consortium led by city council though the curriculum is the responsibility of the Generalitat de Catalunya.
There are also many private schools, some of them Roman Catholic. Most such schools receive a public subsidy on a per-student basis, are subject to inspection by the public authorities, and are required to follow the same curricular guidelines as public schools, though they charge tuition.
Known as escoles concertades , they are distinct from schools whose funding is entirely private escoles privades. The language of instruction at public schools and escoles concertades is Catalan, as stipulated by the Catalan Education Act. Spanish may be used as a language of instruction by teachers of Spanish literature or language, and foreign languages by teachers of those languages. Barcelona's cultural roots go back years.
Since the arrival of democracy , the Catalan language very much repressed during the dictatorship of Franco has been promoted, both by recovering works from the past and by stimulating the creation of new works. It performs around 75 concerts per season and its current director is Eiji Oue. The major thoroughfare of La Rambla is home to mime artists and street performers.
The city also has a thriving alternative music scene, with groups such as The Pinker Tones receiving international attention. Barcelona's oldest and main online newspaper VilaWeb is also the oldest one in Europe with Catalan and English editions. Barcelona has a long sporting tradition and hosted the highly successful Summer Olympics as well as several matches during the FIFA World Cup at the two stadiums. It has hosted about 30 sports events of international significance.
FC Barcelona is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the largest and the second richest in the world. It is the only male football team in the world to accomplish a single season sextuple.
The club's museum is the second most visited in Catalonia. Barcelona has three UEFA elite stadiums: The city has a further three multifunctional venues for sports and concerts: Several road running competitions are organised year-round in Barcelona: There's also the Ultratrail Collserola which passes 85 kilometres 53 miles through the Collserola forest.
Each Christmas, a swimming race across the port is organised. Skateboarding and cycling are also very popular in Barcelona; in and around the city there are dozens of kilometers of bicycle paths. Barcelona is also home to numerous social centres and illegal squats that effectively form a shadow society mainly made up of the unemployed, immigrants, dropouts, anarchists , anti-authoritarians and autonomists.
He notes that they pirate electricity, internet and water allowing them to live on less than one euro a day. He argues that these squats embrace an anarcho-communist and anti-work philosophy, often freely fixing up new houses, cleaning, patching roofs, installing windows, toilets, showers, lights and kitchens.
In the wake of austerity, the squats have provided a number of social services to the surrounding residents, including bicycle repair workshops, carpentry workshops, self-defense classes, free libraries , community gardens , free meals, computer labs, language classes, theatre groups, free medical care and legal support services. Notable squats include Can Vies and Can Masdeus.
Police have repeatedly tried to shut down the squatters movement with waves of evictions and raids, but the movement is still going strong.
It is the second-largest airport in Spain, and the largest on the Mediterranean coast, which handled more than The airport mainly serves domestic and European destinations, although some airlines offer destinations in Latin America, Asia and the United States.
The airport is connected to the city by highway, metro Airport T1 and Airport T2 stations , commuter train Barcelona Airport railway station and scheduled bus service. A new terminal T1 has been built, and entered service on 17 June Sabadell Airport is a smaller airport in the nearby town of Sabadell , devoted to pilot training , aerotaxi and private flights.
The Port of Barcelona has a year-old history and a great contemporary commercial importance. It is Europe's ninth largest container port, with a trade volume of 1. Port Vell the old port , the commercial port and the logistics port Barcelona Free Port. The port is undergoing an enlargement that will double its size thanks to diverting the mouth of the Llobregat river 2 kilometres 1 mile to the south.
The Barcelona harbour is the leading European cruiser port and a most important Mediterranean turnaround base. The Port Vell area also houses the Maremagnum a commercial mall , a multiplex cinema, the IMAX Port Vell and one of Europe's largest aquariums — Aquarium Barcelona , containing 8, fish and 11 sharks contained in 22 basins filled with 4 million litres of sea water.
The Maremagnum, being situated within the confines of the port, is the only commercial mall in the city that can open on Sundays and public holidays. Freight services operate to local industries and to the Port of Barcelona. Both these lines serve Barcelona Sants terminal station. The FGC operates largely commuter rail services, but also carries freight to the Port of Barcelona, as well as a number of rack railways and funiculars and three of the lines of the Barcelona Metro see local public transport below.
Barcelona lies on three international routes, including European route E15 that follows the Mediterranean coast, European route E90 to Madrid and Lisbon, and European route E09 to Paris. The city is circled by three half ring roads or bypasses, Ronda de Dalt B on the mountain side , Ronda del Litoral B along the coast and Ronda del Mig separated into two parts: Travessera de Dalt in the north and the Gran Via de Carles III , two partially covered  fast highways with several exits that bypass the city.
The famous boulevard of La Rambla , whilst no longer an important vehicular route, remains an important pedestrian route. Barcelona is served by a comprehensive local public transport network that includes a metro , a bus network, two separate modern tram networks, a separate historic tram line, and several funiculars and aerial cable cars. This integrated public transport is divided into different zones 1 to 6 and depending on usage various Integrated Travel Cards  are available.
The largely underground Barcelona Metro network comprises twelve lines, identified by an "L" followed by the line number as well as by individual colours. Eight of these lines are operated on dedicated track by the Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona TMB , whilst four lines are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya FGC and some of them share tracks with that company's commuter lines.
The city has two aerial cable cars: Buses in Barcelona are a major form of public transport, with extensive local, interurban and night bus networks. Most local services are operated by the TMB, although some other services are operated by a number of private companies, albeit still within the ATM fare structure. Most of the licences are in the hands of self-employed drivers. With their black and yellow livery, Barcelona's taxis are easily spotted, and can be caught from one of many taxi ranks , hailed on street, called by telephone or via app.
On 22 March ,  Barcelona's City Council started the Bicing service , a bicycle service understood as a public transport. Once the user has their user card, they can take a bicycle from any of the more than stations spread around the city and use it anywhere the urban area of the city, and then leave it at another station.
Many of the buildings date from medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Catalan modernista architecture related to the movement known as Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe developed between and and left an important legacy in Barcelona.
Several of these buildings are World Heritage Sites. As of [update] , completion is planned for Barcelona was also home to Mies van der Rohe 's Barcelona Pavilion. Designed in for the International Exposition for Germany, it was an iconic building that came to symbolise modern architecture as the embodiment of van der Rohe's aphorisms "less is more" and "God is in the details. A modern re-creation by Spanish architects now stands in Barcelona, however, constructed in Barcelona won the RIBA Royal Gold Medal for its architecture,  the first and as of [update] , only time that the winner has been a city rather than an individual architect.
Barcelona has a great number of museums, which cover different areas and eras. The Erotic museum of Barcelona is among the most peculiar ones, while CosmoCaixa is a science museum that received the European Museum of the Year Award in The FC Barcelona Museum has been the most visited museum in the city of Barcelona, with 1,, visitors in Barcelona contains sixty municipal parks, twelve of which are historic, five of which are thematic botanical , forty-five of which are urban , and six of which are forest.
A part of the Collserolla Park is also within the city limits. PortAventura , one of the largest amusement parks in Europe, with 3,, visitors per year, is located one hour's drive from Barcelona. Barcelona beach was listed as number one in a list of the top ten city beaches in the world according to National Geographic  and Discovery Channel. The Olympic Harbour separates them from the other city beaches: At present, the beach sand is artificially replenished given that storms regularly remove large quantities of material.
The Universal Forum of Cultures left the city a large concrete bathing zone on the eastmost part of the city's coastline. Most recently, Llevant is the first beach to allow dogs access during summer season. Santa Maria del Mar church. Santa Maria del Pi church. Castell dels Tres Dragons. The Torre de Collserola on the Tibidabo is the tallest structure in Barcelona Port Vell Aerial Tramway. La Rambla , a popular shopping street and promenade.
Barcelona is twinned with the following cities: Other forms of co-operation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes exist to many cities worldwide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Spain. For other uses, see Barcelona disambiguation. City and municipality in Catalonia, Spain.
History of Barcelona and Timeline of Barcelona. The World Trade Center Barcelona. Municipal elections in Barcelona and List of mayors of Barcelona. List of theatres and concert halls in Barcelona. List of Modernista buildings in Barcelona.
Buildings and structures in Barcelona. List of museums in Barcelona. The Arc de Triomf. Statue of Christopher Columbus. W Barcelona Hotel Vela. Barcelona's old Customs building at Port Vell.
List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain. Shenzhen , China    . Barcelona portal Spain portal Catalan-speaking countries portal European Union portal. Retrieved 13 November Statistical Institute of Catalonia. Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 15 September Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 14 June Annual Traffic Report of the Aviation Department.
Archived from the original PDF on 13 June Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 10 April Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe: A Reconstruction of the Prototypes. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: Little, Brown and Company. Itinerarium Antonini Avgvsti et Hierosolymitanvm: He apparently led a revolt of the indigenous [Visigothic] population against Bernard de Septimanie father of Bernard "Plantevelue" .
He conquered Cerdanya and Urgell in the s, checking the Moorish expansion. Marquis [ of Septimania ]: There is no indication of the date of his appointment. He was killed in a counter-attack by Guillaume, son of Bernard de Septimanie, in A charter dated 22 Mar which records a judgment in the court of " Salamon comes in castrum Sancti Stephani " in favour of the abbey of Lagrasse recites prior donations by " Sunicfredo comiti…cum uxore Ermesinda " .
A charter dated 23 Sep records the foundation of the church of Notre-Dame de Formiguera by " comitibus…Vuifredo et fratre eius Mirone et comitibus Olibano et fratre eius Ayfredo " . It is suggested that the names " Sesenanda, Sunicfredus… " are placed first in the list of children because they held ecclesiastical office.
This is certainly the case with the son Seniofredo see below and no other explanation is forthcoming for the presence of the daughter Sesenanda at the head of the list.
The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. A charter dated 23 Sep records the foundation of the church of Notre-Dame de Formiguera by " comitibus…Vuifredo et fratre eius Mirone et comitibus Olibano et fratre eius Ayfredo " . Chabannas de comparacionem de patre meo He encouraged colonisation in the unsettled frontier areas of Urgell and Cerdanya along the valley of the River Lord. He restored the Bishopric of Vic in This was helped by their geographical remoteness from the central Frankish authority, their own relative stability and the direct relations which they had established with the Papacy .
A charter dated 21 Aug names Wifredo and his wife Winidilda . On his death, his territories were divided between his sons.
Wifredo "el Velloso" and his wife Winidilda donated property to Ripoll Sant Joan monastery by charter dated 27 Jun which names " fratre meo…Seniofredo " .
Her parentage is confirmed by charters dated , and under which " Winidildes commitissa " donated property " in comitato Impuritano in villa…Kabannas omnem portionem mihi…de comparatione de cuondam patrem meum…Seniofredo " to Ripoll Sant Joan monastery .
The name of her father "Seniofredo" suggests that Guinidilda may have been a close relative of her husband, whose father had the same name. It is assumed that this is based on the Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium which records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the Franks gave a daughter of the Count of Flanders in marriage to " Pilosi " at the same time as granting him the county of Barcelona  , although this source is unreliable in points of detail concerning the family of the early counts of Barcelona.
Conte de Flandres " . Considering that the early counts of Flanders were in still in the process of consolidating their newly founded county, it is not clear what contact they would have had with a count whose territory was so distant from their own sphere of activity, or the advantages they would have seen in such a dynastic marriage.
The only known point in common between the two counts appears to have been King Charles II "le Chauve" who was suzerain of both.
Gunhild is not shown among the children of Count Baudouin in Rösch . In any event, this supposed Flemish origin is disproved by the charters quoted above. She died before 18 Feb , the date of a charter which confirmed the possessions of " domna Hemmone habbatissa " in " comitatu Cerdaniensis in valle Petrariense in villa…Stegale ", in the presence of " Mirone comite et judices… ", the document specifying the exclusion of " ipsa hereditatem de Domna Windilde cometissa condam…in villa…Provenca…qui sunt de Recosindo " .
Abbess of Ripoll Sant Joan. A charter dated 18 Feb confirmed the possessions of " domna Hemmone habbatissa " in " comitatu Cerdaniensis in valle Petrariense in villa…Stegale ", in the presence of " Mirone comite et judices… ", the document specifying the exclusion of " ipsa hereditatem de Domna Windilde cometissa condam…in villa…Provenca…qui sunt de Recosindo " .
The testament of " Miro ", dated 13 Jun , names " sorore mea Hemmoni abbatissa…sorore mea Ermesinda… " . Bishop of Urgell, Abbot of Ripoll. The name of Rodolfo's wife is not known. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated under which Bishop Rodolfo " y su hijo Oliva " sold the " alodio de Palau " to " conde Sunyer " .
Nun at Ripoll Sant Joan. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Jul under which Bishop Rodolfo donated property to Ripoll Sant Joan monastery for the soul of " su hijo Seniofredo " . He succeeded his father in as Comte de Barcelona , Girona i Osona, with nominal superiority over his brothers. A charter dated 18 Nov records the sale of " villa de Palacio " to " domno Wifredo comite hac marchio que vocant Borrello et uxori tue Gersinda " .
Wifredo " y su esposa la condesa Garsenda " bought property by charter dated 28 Nov . The origin of Garsinde is unknown. A charter dated 1 May records a hearing at Narbonne before " Richildem vicecomitissam " .
A charter dated 13 May refers to the testament of " condam Richildis vicecomitissa…de civitate Narbona " which appoints " suos elemosiniarios Gersindis comitissa, Matfredo et Adalaiz " and names " Borrello comite consanguineo suo…Odoni viri sui " .
He succeeded his father jointly with his brother in as Comte de Barcelona, Girona i Osona, and his brother in as Comte de Barcelona , Girona i Osona. He succeeded his brother Sunifredo in as Comte de Urgell. He succeeded as Comte de Cerdanya , Conflent i Berga. He succeeded his father in as Comte de Urgell. A record of the possessions of Santa Maria de Ripoll, undated but dated to the 10th century, names " Miro comis Cerdaniensis, Soniarius comis Barchinonensis vel Ausonensis…Borrellus filius Suniefredo comis Urgillitanensis…et domna Emma abbatissa " donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria de Urgel by charter dated 12 Jul .
He presumably died before his father. An inscription in the chapel of " la casa Torres de la Garriga, del partido de Granollers " records the death " VIII Kal Mar " in of " Chixiloni Deo dicata, filia Wifredi comitis " and her burial in the chapel . As Narbonne was under the suzerainty of the comtes de Toulouse, it is possible that " Widinildis comitissa " was the legal representative of the county at the time, widow of the former comte and acting in the capacity of guardian for her minor son.
He succeeded his father jointly with his brother in as Comte de Barcelona, Girona i Osona, and his brother in as sole Comte de Barcelona , Girona i Osona. A charter dated 16 May records the allegiance of the inhabitants of San Juan, Ogasa, Surroca and Caballera del valle de Ripoll to the abbess of Ripoll Sant Joan, in the presence of " Mirone et Suniario comites et marchiones, Ermemiro et Unifredo vicecomites " .
He succeeded his brother Seniofredo in as Comte de Urgell. The martirilogio of Vic records the death " Id Oct " of " Suniarius " . The Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium the death in of " Sunyer " and his burial " in monasterio Rivipolli " . At first sight, this suggests that Borrell must have been the older son. However, the reference to " tutores ", a term not used in any of the other testamentary documents in the compilation, suggests a guardianship element in the relations between the executors and the deceased.
The testament of " Borellus comes " dated 24 Sep appoints " filio meo Ermengaudo comite et Raimundo comite nepoti meo, cum fratres suos Borello comite et Suneario comite " to " comitatu Orgullense " . The term " nepos " in this document can only mean "nephew" as neither of the testator's sons was old enough at that date to have had three sons himself.
No reference to them has been found in any other document, but their mention as part heirs in the will of Comte Borrell [II] suggests a recognition of their possibly superior claim to share in the family estates, maybe corroborating the hypothesis that their father was older than his brother Borrell.
The absence of further reference to joint counts of Urgell suggests that all three brothers died soon after the date of this testament, probably without male issue. The title " comitissa " attributed to her in this document suggests that Adelaida was married to, or was widow of, a " comes " at the date of the document. Bofarull suggests that she was the wife of her paternal uncle Seniofredo Comte de Urgell  , but this appears to be based on nothing more than the fact that the two individuals bore the same name which was not an uncommon one at the time.
The similarity of the name suggests that this was the same person as the daughter of Comte Sunyer. The Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium names in order " Borellus, Ermengaudus et Miro " as the three sons of "Sunyer", specifying that " Borrellus filius Suniarii comitis Urgelli " succeeded his cousin " Seniofredus " in Barcelona . The alliance was, however, unsuccessful and comte Borrell was defeated by the governor of Zaragoza in .
He concluded a treaty with the caliph, marking the end of Catalonia's historic dependence on the Frankish kingdom  , although the treaty was broken by al-Mansur who captured Barcelona in . The testament of " Borellus comes " dated 24 Sep provides for the disposition of his titles between his successors, as shown below .
The Annales Barcinonenses record the death in of " Borrelli comes Barchinonensis " . Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that she was 15 years old or younger at the time of her marriage, but old enough to have given birth to her first child before the date of this charter.
Bofarull records a suggestion by Marca that Ledgarde was the daughter of " Ramon Pons y Garsinda condes de Auvernia " . The testament of " Borellus comes " dated 24 Sep names " uxore mea Aimerudis " and also " Aldria filia tua " when addressing his wife, which provides confirmation of her first marriage . The identity of her first husband is not known. It is not known whether this daughter was the same as one of the other daughters of Borrell named below.
The Annales Barcinonenses name " Raimundus Barchinonensis comes, filius Borelli comitis " when recording his death . He succeeded his father in as Comte de Barcelona , Girona, i Osona. The testament of " Borellus comes " dated 24 Sep appoints " filio meo Raimundo comite " to " comitatu Gerundense…[et] comitatu Barchinonense " . Regent during the minority of her son until early s.
She acquired considerable power during her regency, quarrelling with her son. She continued to be a disruptive influence in Catalonia until her death . The testament of " Ermesindis comitissa ", dated 25 Sep , names " domnum Raymundum Berengarium comitem nepotem meum…domna Almodis comitissa coniuge vestra " . The codicil of " domna Ermesindis comitissa ", dated 6 Mar O. No primary source has been identified which confirms that either of these names is correct. There are several reasons why this suggestion is unlikely to be correct.
Thirdly, there are intrinsic problems associated with the Chronicon S. Her parentage is suggested by the charter dated 10 Apr under which " Remundus Berengarius et Berengarius Remundus…Barchinonensium comites atque marchiones " granted property " intra muros Barchinone urbis " to " Adaledi femine consubrine nostre " .
It is unlikely that Adelaida was related to the two brother comtes de Barcelona through their mother Sancha de Castilla. It is possible that she was the child of an otherwise unknown child of Comte Ramon Borrell [I], although as can be seen above no definite information is known about his other possible children.
Alternatively Adelaida could have been a more remote descendant, possibly granddaughter, of one of the brothers or sisters of Comte Ramon Borrell. She was the same person as " Adaledis femina " who sold property " intra muros Barchinone urbis " to " Remundo Dalmatii levite " by charter dated 12 May , as the description of the two properties appears to be the same .
A charter dated 19 Dec relating to a sale of property names " Ermengardis filia condam Borrelli comitis " and " Geriberto " but does not expressly make the connection between the two . The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct , appoints " …soror mea Richel… " as one of her helemosinarii , bequeathes " Subiratis…castel " to " Mir filio meo " on condition he donates it to " sua nepota filia de Reimundo ", donates property " pro anima de viro meo domnus Geribertus ", bequeathes property to " Guillelm filio de Mir…Fulcus filio…nepta mea filia de Reimundo…Seniol per dominicatione de filia mea Guilla…Adalet filia de Mir " .
The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified, although it is hinted at by t he testament of her sister " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct , which appoints " …soror mea Richel… " as one of her helemosinarii . The growth in power of feudal lords, and the consequent breakdown in central authority, led to a reaction to restore public order centred around the Truce of God , inaugurated by the bishops of Elne and Vic .
The Annales Barcinonenses record the death in of " Berengarius comes Barchinonensis " . The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names his wife, his mother and three sons . Bofarull suggests that Sancha was the daughter of Sancho Duke of Gascony . However, if this is correct, it is unclear why her husband would not have claimed the disputed succession to the duchy of Gascony, in her name, after the death of Duke Sancho in The primary sources which corroborate these hypotheses have not yet been identified.
The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names " uxorem meam Guiliam comitissam " and leaves the county of Osona to her, while she remains unmarried, and their son " Guilelmo " . The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names " filium meum maiorem…Reimundus " . Benedicti de Bagis " where he died . The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names "… filium meum Sancium… " .
The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names "… Guiliam comitissam…cum filio meo et suo Guilelmo… " . One possibility is that he was born posthumously, or at least after the date of the testament.
Another possibility is that he was not the son of Comte Berenguer Ramon but the son of an otherwise unrecorded daughter of Ermesinde. The parentage of the wife of Henri de Bourgogne has not been identified with certainty. There appears to be nothing to support the suggestion that her first name was Sibylla. There does not appear to be any proof to support any of these theories.
Ramon Berenguer [I] eventually succeeded in restoring political order, in part through a systematic process of purchasing castles from local lords and returning them as feudal concessions. In consolidating his power progressively by securing alliances with local magnates, he effectively established a new feudal order with himself at the pinnacle.
A charter dated records that " Raymundum comitem Barchinonensem et Elisabet comitssa " promised the town of Tarragona " cum ipso comitatu Terraconensis " to " Berengarium vicecomitem Narbone ", naming also " Ricardus vicecomes de Amilau ", although it appears that this was never implemented . The Annales Barcinonenses record the death in of " Raimundus Berengarius comes Barchinonensis " .
The publication of the testament of " comitis Barchinone…Raimundi Berengarii " dated 12 Nov names " duobus filiis suis…Raimundo Berengarii et Berengario Raimundi…filiam suam Sanciam ", and includes a residuary provision that in case of the death of these three, his counties would revert to " filium Guigonis de Albion quem habuit de filia sua Agnes " .
A charter dated 14 Nov records the marriage of Ramon Berenguer and " Elisabet…comitissa " at " ecclesia beati Cucuphati " . Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that she was an adolescent at the time of the marriage, but bearing in mind that she bore two children before The name of her father is not known, although she is named as daughter of " Ermengardis femina " in several charters .
A charter dated records that " Raymundum comitem Barchinonensem et Elisabet comitssa " promised the town of Tarragona " cum ipso comitatu Terraconensis " to " Berengarium vicecomitem Narbone " . Comte Ramon Berenguer " et Bancha comitissa uxor eius " granted property to a vassal by charter dated 26 Mar .
She is also named in a charter dated under which Comtesa Ermesindis undertook, on behalf of Comte Ramon Berenguer and his wife Almodis, to obtain the lifting of the excommunication which Pope Victor II had pronounced " pro Blancha femina contra The testament of Comte Ramon Berenguer refers to, but does not name, a wife to whom the testator bequeathed " quatuor milia mancusos " . It is unlikely that this bequest relates to a fourth wife, otherwise unrecorded, as presumably a surviving wife would have been named in the document.
It therefore appears probable that the bequest was intended for Blanca who was still alive when the testament was written. Bofarull suggests that the testament should be interpreted as indicating that Ramon Berenguer married Blanca for a second time before he died  , but the problem of the absence of her name from the document remains. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of " Almodim…sororem Audeberti comitis de Marcha " and " Pontius comes Tolosanus ", specifying that she was previously the wife of " Hugo Pius de Liziniaco " from whom she was separated for consanguinity and that afterwards she married " Raimundo Barcinonensi " .
A charter of his parents dated 28 May , relating to the restoration of the hospital at Barcelona, names their deceased " filiorum nostrorum…Berengarii et Annalli " . The Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium names in order " Petrum…Raimundi et Berengarium Raimundi et Raimundum Berengarii " as the sons of " Raimundus Berengarii ", recording that " Petrus Raimundi " murdered his stepmother " Adalmoyn " and was exiled " in Hispania " where he died childless .
However, no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct. A simpler explanation of the timing difficulties is that the and charters were misdated. The publication of the testament of " comitis Barchinone…Raimundi Berengarii " dated 12 Nov names " duobus filiis suis…Raimundo Berengarii et Berengario Raimundi… " .
His brother comte Berenguer Ramon II quarrelled with him, calling for a division of their territories, and murdered Ramon Berenguer. The Annales Barcinonenses record that " Raimundus comes Barchinonensis " was killed in . A document prepared during the reign of Alfonso II King of Aragon, relating to rights in the county of Carcassonne, records that Ramon Berenguer was killed " in festo Sancti Nicolai " after the birth of his son .
The necrology of Ripoll records that " Raymundus Berengarius Barchinonensis comes et marchio " was killed 5 Dec " in colle de Astor per fratrem suum " . Mathilde was the oldest daughter of Robert "Guiscard" according to William of Apulia . The Alexeiad records that Robert "Guiscard" betrothed " one daughter to Raymond, son of the Count Barcinon " but does not name her .
Ramon and his wife " Maheltis " donated property to a vassal by undated charter . She was strongly supported by Guillem Ramon Seneschal of Catalonia and his brothers after her first husband's murder. Pontich records the burial of " la Comptesa muller del compte D. Ramon Berenguer " in " la Sta Iglesia de Gerona…casi devant la de son marit " .
Ramon Berenguer and his mother Mahalta issued a charter dated 6 Jun . Almodis is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln  as the daughter of Ramon Berenguer [II], but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. She is not mentioned as his daughter by Bofarull. It is possible that the connection is speculative based only her being named after her supposed paternal grandmother.
If Almodis, wife of Bernat Amat Vescomte de Cardona, was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer, she would have been a young child at the time of her marriage. He succeeded his uncle in  as Comte de Barcelona , Girona, i Osona. The publication of the testament of " comitis Barchinone…Raimundi Berenga rii " dated 12 Nov names " duobus filiis suis…Raimundo Berengarii et Berengario Raimundi… " .
He quarrelled with his brother, calling for a division of their father's inheritance. He was widely believed to have murdered his brother, but was unable to consolidate his political power in the face of strong opposition from Guillem Ramon Seneschal of Catalonia and his brothers, and Guillem Comte de Cerdanya. Under a compromise reached in , Berenguer Ramon was named guardian of his minor nephew for the next 11 years.
The necrology of Ripoll records that " Berengarius comes " died " in Jerosol. Her parentage is confirmed by the publication of the testament of " comitis Barchinone…Raimundi Berengarii " dated 12 Nov includes a residuary provision that, in case of the death of his three other children, his counties would revert to " filium Guigonis de Albion quem habuit de filia sua Agnes " .
The wording of the testament implies that both Ines and her husband were deceased at the time. The publication of the testament of " comitis Barchinone…Raimundi Berengarii " dated 12 Nov names " duobus filiis suis…Raimundo Berengarii et Berengario Raimundi…filiam suam Sanciam " the last named specified as unmarried .
This appears chronologically difficult to sustain, and is disproved by the charter dated by which " Guillemus…Cerdaniensis comes " donated property to the monastery of Ripoll, subscribed by " Sancia comitissa " .
The restoration of Tarragona began in , the Pope designating Oleguer Bishop of Barcelona as archbishop of Tarragona. Ramon Berenguer [III] signed a treaty of partition with the comte de Toulouse in concerning the territories in France. He supervised the formulation of the feudal code which later became known as the Usatges , the first full compilation of feudal law in any west European state .
During his reign, the county of Barcelona became a papal fief . The testament of " Raimundus Berengarii…Barchinonensis comes et marchio " dated [8 Jul] names " Aimericum fratrem meum " as one of his manumissores and names " Raimundo Berengarii filio meo…et filie mee ipsa de Castella et illa de Fuxo " .
The Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium records the death of " Raimundi-Berengarii comitis " in and his burial at " Rivipullense…Monasterium " . The primary source which confirms her supposed first marriage has not yet been identified, but the date of death of her supposed first husband appears incompatible with the date of the first charter in which she appears with her [second] husband.
Ramon Berenguer and his wife Maria granted property to a vassal by charter dated . Her parentage is not known. A charter dated 26 Sep records that Ramon Berenguer was still childless by his marriage at that date . The marriage contract of " Raymundus Barchinonensis comes et marchio The testament of " Raimundus Berengarii…Barchinonensis comes et marchio " dated [8 Jul] names " Raimundo Berengarii filio meo… " . His marriage eventually united the county of Barcelona and the kingdom of Aragon under a single ruler, although the two territories retained their separate political identities.
The testament of " Raimundus Berengarii…Barchinonensis comes et marchio " dated [8 Jul] names " Raimundo Berengarii filio meo…et filie mee ipsa de Castella et illa de Fuxo " . However, no primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct and several reasons point to it being unlikely.
Secondly, the testament of her father names " filie mee…illa de Fuxo " after his daughter " ipsa de Castella ". This would normally indicate that the former was younger than the latter. The only possible reason for reversing the order of his daughters would have been the supposed precedence of the queen of Castile over the comtesse de Foix.
However, no other example of this adjustment to the order of names in primary source documents has been found, except those justified by the supposed precedence of children holding ecclesiastical office over lay children. Thirdly, Jimena would have named her daughter after her own mother. However, the name was not uncommon in Spain at the time, and it is quite possible that Jimena was named after another relative. The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.
Ramon Berenguer granted his unmarried daughter Mahalta " todo el honor que poseia desde Terrads hasta el rio Tec y Paladda ", by charter dated 8 Jul . Ponce de Cevera and his wife Adalmuz donated property to the Templarios by charter dated 15 Mar . However, " Geriberga vicecomitissa ", who donated property " in Claromonte castro " to the monastery of Sant Cugat by charter dated 24 Nov  , has not otherwise been identified.
There appears to be no chronological difficulty if she was the widow of Guitard. This appears to be confirmed by the charter dated 28 Nov which publishes the testament of " condom homo…Adalbertus filius condam Guitardi vicecomitis ", which bequeathes property to " mater sua Gueriberga " . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. The testament of " Borellus comes " dated 24 Sep appoints " filio meo Raimundo comite…et Udalardo vicecomite cum fratre suo Girbert et Bonifilio cum fratre suo Bonucio " to " comitatu Barchinonense " .
A charter dated 30 May records a sale of property to " Odolardo vicescomite " . His parentage is suggested by the charter dated 19 [Dec ] which records a dispute between " domnum Reimundum comitem et…Guilabertum episcopum ", names " Udalardo nepoti suo " and in another place in the text refers to another dispute between " Udalardus Bernardi " and " Reimundum comitem ", although it is not entirely clear that these two passages refer to the same person .
The document also indicates that Ermengarde was alive at that date. Bishop of Barcelona . The testament of " Guislaberti episcopi " was published 3 Jun , and bequeathes property to " Ermengaudo Iohannes suo nepoti…filium suum Mironem et…filiam suam Ermessindaem " . Guislabert [I] had two illegitimate children by Mistress 1: The document does not specify any relationship between the donor and donee, but it is possible that the latter was the nephew of the former.
This is the only document so far identified which accords the title "vescomte" to Geribert. The implication is that it was withdrawn from him shortly afterwards, presumably in a dispute with his brother Udalard about their inheritance. This hypothesis appears to confirmed by the testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct which bequeathes " Subiratis…castel " to " Mir filio meo " on condition he donates it to " sua nepota filia de Reimundo " and makes another bequest to " nepta mea filia de Reimundo " .
If this is correct, Ramon must have died before the date of the testament. The fact that his daughter is not named in the testament suggests that she must have been only recently born, which in turn indicates that Ramon must have died shortly before that date.
Her parentage is confirmed by the testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct which bequeathes " Subiratis…castel " to " Mir filio meo " on condition he donates it to " sua nepota filia de Reimundo " and makes another bequest to " nepta mea filia de Reimundo " . The fact that this daughter is not named in the testament suggests that she must have been only recently born at that date.
The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct bequeathes property to " Mir filio meo " . A charter dated 1 Jul records the settlement of the claim by Ramon Berenguer Comte de Barcelona against " Mirone Geriberti " for his rebellion, which also names " uxor sua…Guilia…et Bernardus et Gondeballus filii illorum " .
The information available relating to these donations does not indicate whether " Miron Geriberto " was the same person as the son of Geribert and Ermengardis. A charter dated 17 Jan records an exchange of property between the abbot of Sant Cugat and " Mironi Geriberti et uxori tue…Guile " .
Her parentage is confirmed by the testament of " Gomballus ", dated 16 Aug , which names " Aurucia mulier mea…mulieri mee…Guisla [deceased]…filia mea…Guisla et…virum suum…Mir et…filium suum de Guisla…Bernard et Willelmum [archidiaconum] frater suum, nepotes Gomballi…filias meas Ermengards et Ermesends…Guisla nepta mea filia de Arbert " .
This is confirmed by the charter dated to  under which " Miro Geriberti, filius qui fui quondam Ermengardis femina et…Guilia filia qui fui alterius Guilie " confirmed a donation to Sant Miquel del Fai of property " post mortem Gonbald " . The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct bequeathes property to " Guillelm filio de Mir… " . His death is suggested by the charter dated 19 [Dec ] which records a dispute between " domnum Reimundum comitem et…Guilabertum episcopum " and refers to " morte de Guilelmo Mironis " .
The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct bequeathes property to " …Adalet filia de Mir " . The testament of " Mironis Geriberti " is published 29 Oct bequeathed property to " …Adalaidis filie sue [et] suum filium " . His parentage is confirmed by the testament of " Gomballus ", dated 16 Aug , which names " Aurucia mulier mea…mulieri mee…Guisla [deceased]…filia mea…Guisla et…virum suum…Mir et…filium suum de Guisla…Bernard et Willelmum [archidiaconum] frater suum, nepotes Gomballi…filias meas Ermengards et Ermesends…Guisla nepta mea filia de Arbert " .
The fact that he is not named in this document suggests that he was born recently before the date of the testament. It is assumed that Bernat was born after the 17 Oct testament of his paternal grandmother, in which he is not named, unless he was an infant at that time and not considered old enough to be mentioned. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 24 Nov under which " Guislibertus…sancte sedis Barchinonensis episcopus " donated property to " Mironi Geriberti et uxori tue Guilie et filio vestro Bernardo…clericus…sancte Crucis sancteque Eulalie " .
The testament of " Mironis Geriberti " is published 29 Oct bequeathed property to " …Bernardum filium suum … " . It is assumed that Gondebald was born after the 17 Oct testament of his paternal grandmother, in which he is not named, unless he was an infant at that time and not considered old enough to be mentioned. The testament of " Mironis Geriberti " is published 29 Oct bequeathed property to " …Gondeballo filio suo… " . The testament of " Mironis Geriberti " is published 29 Oct bequeathed property to " …Arnallum filium suum… ", providing that if Arnal died his share should be inherited by " Reimundo fratri suo " and if Ramon died, by " Gondeballum filium suum " .
The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct , bequeathes property to " …Fulcus filio… " . The testament of " Ermeniardis ", dated 17 Oct , bequeathes property to " …Seniol per dominicatione de filia mea Guilla… "  , which suggests that Guisla was married to Seniol at that date although this is not expressly stated in the document.
Her second marriage is indicated by the charter dated 11 Dec under which " Guiliam vicecomitissam…et filii sui quos habuit de Fulcho vicecomite " . A charter dated 28 Nov publishes the testament of " condom homo…Adalbertus filius condam Guitardi vicecomitis ", which bequeathes property to " mater sua Gueriberga " .
A dispute arose with the abbot of Sant Cugat concerning part of his inheritance, as shown by the charter dated 1 May which exposes differences between the abbot and " Geriberto " about " turrim…Mogia " bequeathed to the abbey by " Adalbertus frater istius Geriberti ", Geribert claiming that it was " mea hereditas sive fratris mei sororisque mee " .
The dispute persisted, as shown by the charter dated 29 Jul which records the legal action which followed . Her existence is confirmed by a charter dated 1 May which exposes differences between the abbot of Sant Cugat and " Geriberto " about " turrim…Mogia " bequeathed to the abbey by " Adalbertus frater istius Geriberti ", Geribert claiming that it was " mea hereditas sive fratris mei sororisque mee " .
The testament of " Berengarii comiti et marchionis " dated 9 Feb names " uxorem meam Guiliam comitissam " . His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 25 May which records a sale of property to " Reverter " which names " patris tui Girberti " .
The same work records the involvement of " Ali ibn ez-Zoborteir " in Mallorca, with the comment that variations of the translation include " er-Robertin " .
An earlier translation of the same work translates the name as " Ali ibn-er-Robertin " . Dozy suggests that the correct transliteration is " Reberter " . The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris records the death of " Reverter the leader of the captive Christian people…in the palace of King Tashufin " .
Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 28 Jul under which " Berengarius Reverter, filius Arsendis femine " swore fidelity to Comte Ramon Berenguer IV . The testament of " Berengarius Revertarius " is dated 28 Oct , before his journey to Morocco, bequeathes " castrum meum de ipsa Guardia et castrum de Apierola et castrum Novum et castrum de Granaria et castrum de Apiera " to " filio meo Berengario " under the guardianship of " Arberti de Castro Vetulo ", and if he died without legitimate children " castrum de Gardia et castrum de Apiera " to " Guillelmo de Castro Vetulo consanguineo meo ", subscribed by " …Berenguer ben Reverter signed in Arabic " .
The testament of " Berengarius Revertarius ", dated 28 Oct , bequeathes " castrum meum de ipsa Guardia et castrum de Apierola et castrum Novum et castrum de Granaria et castrum de Apiera " to " filio meo Berengario " under the guardianship of " Arberti de Castro Vetulo " . The testament of " Berengarius de Guardia " is dated 13 Apr , before undertaking the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, bequeathes " castrum de Guardia " to " Arberto de Castro Veteri ", and if he dies childless, to " Guillelmo de Guardia consanguineo meo ", and " castro Apierole " to " Guillelmo de Monte Serrato consanguineo meo " .
Reverter had one [probably illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress, probably a Muslim]: Reverter was such an unusual name in contemporary Catalonian charters that there must be a connection with Vescomte Reverter [I]. If it is correct that Berenguer was illegitimate, the arab name and the signature in Arabic suggest that his mother was Muslim.
Dozy records that " Reberter " see above left a Muslim son named " Abu-l-Hasan Ali ibn-ar-Reberter ", who served the Almohads, was sent to Mallorca by Sultan Abu-Yakub Yusuf towards the end of his reign to fight the Almoravid Beni-Ghania family who ruled the island, was arrested during the campaign against Santarem in , escaped, but was killed in battle at Ghomert, near Tunis in .
It would appear that this was the same person named " Berenguer ben Reverter ", present in Barcelona, in the documents dated and Regent of the vescomtat de Barcelona Her parentage is confirmed by the testament of " don Guillem de la Guardia ", published 7 May , which left his children " en la tutela de…Bernardo Raymundo de Manresa, su suegro " .
The testament of " don Guillem de la Guardia ", published 7 May , appointed " su hijo Ferrer " as his heir and if he died childless " su hija Guillelma ", and left his children " en la tutela de…Bernardo Raymundo de Manresa, su suegro " . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 12 Mar under which " El vizconde Guilaberto, junto con sus hijos Pedro Udalardo y Berenguer Udalardo " donated the castle of " Collum Betoni " to " su hija Ermesendis y a su marido Bartholome " .
Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 30 Apr under which " Guilabertus…Barchinonensium vicecomes " granted property to " Arsendis filie mee et Guillelmus Raimundi viro tuo " .
It is assumed that " Arberti de Castro Vetulo " and " Guillelmo de Castro Vetulo consanguineo meo ", named in the testament of " Berengarius Revertarius " dated 28 Oct  , were descendants of Arsenda and her husband. Her first marriage is suggested by the testament of " Alazadis uxor Martini Petiti ", dated 13 Aug , which names " filiis matris mee Perside…fratri meo Berengario " . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 10 Apr under which " Bernardo Udalardo uxorique mee Persedie femine " donated property to " Martino genere nostro uxorique tue Adalezis filie nostre " .
The charter dated 31 Aug , under which " Bernardus Udalardi " donated property to " Ege femine uxori mee ", describes the property in question in relation to " domibus Martin Petit et filie mee Azalaidis " .
The testament of " Azalaidis ", published 19 Jun , bequeathes property to " filius suos…Guillelmum et Raimundum " and names " avunculos suos Arnallo Raimundi et Guillelmi Raimundi " . The testament of " Alazadis uxor Martini Petiti " is dated 13 Aug and names " filiis matris mee Perside…fratri meo Berengario " .
Their patronymics indicate that Pere and Berenguer were sons of Vescomte Udalard. The document does not specify any relationship between the donor and donee, but the editor of the compilation states that she was his sister.
The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 24 Apr under which " Guislibertus vicecomes et mater sua " granted property to " Ermeniardis femina et filia tua Guilia femina et viro suo Rodebertus…Xalvino " . Vuilelmi vicecomitis Asperiensis, Petroni vicecomitis Fenoliotensis A charter dated 29 Aug records the judgment, in the presence of " dompno Bernardo comite et fratre suo dompno Gifredo ", in favour of " Seniofredo vicecomite " relating to the church of Santa Coloma del Conflent which had been held by " Bernardo vicecomite vel a filio suo Seniofredo vicecomite " .
A charter dated 13 Oct publishes the testament of " Bernardo condam comite ", witnessed by " Wifredus comes…Tota comitissa ", names " filio [suo] Wilielmo…filium suum Ugonem…filio suo Biringario…nepotem suum qui comes fuit de Cerdania Aienrichus…filius suus…fratribus suis Wifredo et Olibane " and leaves " filios…suo Aienrico et Ugone et Berengario…in tuicione " to " Wilielmo filio suo " . A charter dated 13 Oct publishes the testament of " Bernardo condam comite ", witnessed by " Wifredus comes…Tota comitissa " .
She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln  as the possible daughter of Guillaume II Comte de Provence but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. No primary source has been found which corroborates this supposed family origin.