A news story from the New York Times or a book from a library? Zotero has you covered, everywhere. Zotero helps you organize your research any way you want. You can sort items into collections and tag them with keywords. Or create saved searches that automatically fill with relevant materials as you work.
Zotero instantly creates references and bibliographies for any text editor, and directly inside Word and LibreOffice. With support for over 8, citation styles, you can format your work to match any style guide or publication.
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In-text citations include three items: Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author s , the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range.
Including citations in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to , members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.
The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use this citation style quite frequently. Click here for more information. This format was first developed in in order to form a standardized way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources.
Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information, in random order.
You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created this citation style. This citation style is currently in its 6th edition and was released in In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed.
In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included in the publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation.
In , the American Psychological Association released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technological advances and resources. There are two types of citations: In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project.
Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer and include all of the information needed to locate the source yourself. Full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine is a citation generator that will make the citation process much easier for you.
In-text, or parenthetical citations , are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons.
In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.
Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In-text citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this:.
This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. According to a study done by Kent and Giles , student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.
Head to our homepage to learn more. Click here to learn more about crediting work. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for citations varies based on the source type, but some citations use this general format:.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format:.
If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, such as Citation Machine, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n. If using Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.
A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In this citation style, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.
Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title.
Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. If you are using Citation Machine, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form.
Other common terms, such as Inc. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 9 , After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period.
DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. If using Citation Machine to develop your citation, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. Citation Machine will properly cite your online sources for you. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. Author Last name, First initial.
Last name, First initial. The race between education and technology. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums. Last name of chapter author, First initial. Last name of Editor Ed. The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.